A History of the Falls

An Overview

The Retreat of the Falls

The Dakota, Ojibwe, and First European

The Founding of the Twin Cities

Sawmilling

The Eastman Tunnel Collapse

Flour Milling

Hydroelectricity

Other Industries and Workers

Rebirth, Renewal, and Return

The Falls and the University

Islands in the River

 

 

A History of Saint Anthony Falls

 

Acknowledgements and Bibliography

 

Acknowledgements

The creators of this site are indebted to several institutions and individuals. The Minnesota Historical Society provided the historical images and the University of Minnesota – Twin Cities provided funding. Both Du Anne Heeren and Kent Kirkby edited the content of much of the website and provided feedback on the tour. Paul Morin also provided support for the improving the original site. Karen Campbell of Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory provided support and oversaw completion of the original site. Boy Scouts of Troop 367 underwent the practice elementary school tour and offered valuable suggestions and feedback. Amy Chen also edited the tour.

 

For Further Reading

If you are interested in learning more about St. Anthony Falls, the following three sources are a great place to start:
                                 
The Falls of St. Anthony: The Waterfall that Built a City by Lucile M. Kane – the book about the falls that provides a detailed history of the waterfall and its impact on the Twin Cities

Mill City: A Visual History of the Minneapolis Mill District edited by Shannon M. Pennefeather – provides numerous accounts of the falls and the milling district

River of History: A Historic Resources Study of the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area by John O. Anfinson – Chapter six provides a brief overview of the history of the falls

 

Bibliography


"About The Depot Minneapolis | Downtown Minneapolis Hotels." The Depot Minneapolis | Downtown Minneapolis Hotels | Minneapolis Waterpark | Ice Rink. The Depot. Web. <http://www.thedepotminneapolis.com/history.php>.

Anfinson, John O. River of History: A Historic Resources Study of the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Paul District, 2003. Print.

Anfinson, John O. "Spiritual Power to Industrial Might: 12,000 Years at St. Anthony Falls." Minnesota History 58.5 & 6 (2003): 252-69. Print.

Anfinson, Scott F. "Archaeology at the Riverfront: Unearthing the Invisible." Minnesota History 58.5 & 6 (2003): 320-31. Print.

Afinson, Scott F. "Archaeology of the Central Minneapolis Riverfront Part 2: Archaeological Explorations and Interpretive Potentials." The Minnesota Archaeologist 49.1-2 (1990). From Site to Story. The Institute for Minnesota Archaeology, 29 June 1999. Web. <http://www.fromsitetostory.org/sources/papers/mnarch49/49a-archad.asp>.

Atkins, Annette. "At Home in the Heart of the City." Minnesota History 58.5 & 6 (2003): 286-304. Print.

Atwater, Isaac. History of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota, Part 1. New York: Munsell and, 1893. Google Books. Web. 27 July 2011. <http://books.google.com/books?id=CoVGorZ2vWMC&source=gbs_book_other_versions>.

"Bridges 2005: Lost Bridges." Bridges 2005 Home. Minneapolis Riverfront District, 2005. Web. <http://www.mrdbridges.com/lostBr.php>.

"Bridges 2005: Merriam Street Bridge." Bridges 2005 Home. Minneapolis Riverfront District, 2005. Web. <http://www.mrdbridges.com/merriam.php>.

Carroll, Jean L. "Dams and Damages: The Ojibway, the United States, and the Mississippi Headwaters Reservoirs." Minnesota History 52 (1990): 2-15. Minnesota Historical Society. Web. 27 July 2011. <http://collections.mnhs.org/MNHistoryMagazine/articles/52/v52i01p002-015.pdf>.

Danbom, David. "Flour Power: The Significance of Flour Milling at the Falls." Minnesota History 58.5 & 6 (2003): 270-85. Print.

El-Hai, Jack. Lost Minnesota: Stories of Vanished Places. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2000. Print.
“Father Hennepin Bluffs” historical monument found in Father Hennepin Bluffs Park at the end of Sixth Street SE and the beginning of the Stone Arch Bridge

Gardner, Denis. "Neon Billboard: Nicollet Island, Hennepin County." Minnesota History58.5&6 (2003): 251. Print.

Hage, Christopher, and Rushika Hage. Nicollet Island. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub., 2010. Print.

Hage, Christopher, and Rushika Hage. Nicollet Island: History and Architecture. Minneapolis, MN: Nodin, 2010. Print.

Hennepin County Library. "University of Minnesota." A History of Minneapolis. Hennepin County Library. Web. 26 July 2011. <http://www.hclib.org/pub/search/specialcollections/mplshistory/?id=7>.

Kane, Lucile M. The Falls of St. Anthony: the Waterfall That Built Minneapolis. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1987. Print.

Kirkby, Kent. Personal interview. 15 July 2011.

MCDA and Historic Preservation in Minneapolis. Minneapolis: MCDA, 1997. Print.

"Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church - History." Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church - Home. Our Lady of Lourdes. Web. <http://ourladyoflourdesmn.com/history/>.

Pearson, Marjorie, Penny A. Peterson,, and Hess, Roise and Company. Architecture and Historic Preservation on the Minneapolis Riverfront. The Saint Anthony Falls Heritage Board, Mar. 2007. Web. <http://www.mnhs.org/places/safhb/pdf/researchReport/ArchitectureHistoricPreservation07/ArchitectureHistoricPreservation07ResearchReport.pdf>.
Pennefeather, Shannon M. Mill City: A Visual History of the Minneapolis Mill District. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society, 2003. Print.

“Pettingill’s Wonderful Water”, Saint Anthony Falls Historic Trail Marker found in Father Hennepin Bluffs Park, near Sixth Avenue SE and Main Street, Minneapolis, MN

"Pillsbury "A" Mill Complex." America's 11 Most Endangered Historic Places. National Trust for Historic Preservation. Web. 27 July 2011. <http://www.preservationnation.org/travel-and-sites/sites/midwest-region/pillsbury-a-mill-complex.html>.

Rosheim, David L. The Other Minneapolis, or The Rise and Fall of the Gateway, the Old Minneapolis Skid Row. Maquoketa, IA: Andromeda, 1978. Print.

Smith, David C. Parks, Lakes, Trails and So Much More: An Overview of the Histories of MPRB Properties. Minneapolis: Minneapolis Parks and Recreation Board, 2008. Parks, Lakes, Trails and So Much More: An Overview of the Histories of MPRB Properties. Minneapolis Parks and Recreation Board, 2008. Web. 27 July 2011. <http://www.minneapolisparks.org/documents/parks/Parks_Lakes_Trails_Much_More.pdf>.

“The West Side Mills: The Mills of Mill Ruins Park” historical marker found in front of Washburn A Mill on Portland Ave
University of Minnesota. "History." History and Mission. University of Minnesota, 30 June 2011. Web. 26 July 2011. <http://www1.umn.edu/twincities/history-mission/index.html>.